This is a quite technically-oriented article in which I will present an idea for possible superluminal communication, suitable for exercising the skills of critical thinking and objective analysis.
In order to circumvent the natural speed of light limitation, this approach exploits the so-called Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) state of quantum entanglement. Unlike many previous attempts to use pairs of quantum-entangled particles for this purpose, this approach utilizes quantum entanglement of groups of three particles. There are two such states: the GHZ and W-state.
I have to emphasize that this idea is not based on getting results of measurements of entangled particles in various settings or trying to somehow force the particle on one side into the desired quantum state (which is, of course, impossible). Instead, this approach is oriented toward discerning different amounts of entanglement in the tripartite GHZ (or even W-state) groups.
If there is a system of three particles in the GHZ state of quantum entanglement, this essentially means that their quantum states are mutually correlated. However, the correlation between any of these two particles within the system is partial, while the entanglement of the system as a whole is full and stable.
This reasoning has an important premise: whenever one of the particles within a GHZ system is measured along an orthogonal direction, it becomes disentangled from the other two. On the other “side” of the system, those two other particles become fully entangled with each other, i.e., they are left in a maximally entangled Bell state. On the other hand, whenever one of the particles within a GHZ system is measured along the privileged Z direction, the entanglement of all three particles is completely destroyed. This means that not only the measured particle is disentangled, but also the other two become unentangled from each other and from the first particle. In other words, they are left in a “pure” or “mixed” state.
In accordance with the basics elements mentioned above, this approach to FTL communication is presented below in the form of thought experiment.
So, we may imagine that one of these particles is on Earth with Alice, who has suitable equipment for measurement. The other two particles of that system are with Bob, who brought them with him to Mars, also with appropriate measuring equipment. Although physically separated, all three particles have preserved their GHZ state of entanglement.
 “Although a naive measurement of the third particle of the GHZ state results in an unentangled pair, a more clever measurement, along an orthogonal direction, can leave behind a maximally entangled Bell state. (…) The lesson to be drawn from this is that pairwise entanglement in the GHZ is more subtle than it naively appears: measurements along the privileged Z-direction destroy pairwise entanglement, but other measurements (along different axes) do not.”
Source: Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenberger%E2%80%93Horne%E2%80%93Zeilinger_state
In previously agreed time intervals, depending on the message that she wants to send to Bob, Alice takes a measurement on her one-particle part of the GHZ system. She measures its quantum state either along the privileged Z direction or along an orthogonal direction.
On Mars, Bob regularly takes separate measurements on his two particles in the same time intervals (previously agreed with Alice).
If Alice takes the measurement along the orthogonal direction, her particle becomes unentangled from the other two on Mars, but Bob’s pair of two particles becomes mutually fully entangled. He measures both his particles separately, compares the results and learns that their quantum states are 100% in correlation. (Perhaps there should be several more such measurements on similar GHZ systems to determine whether the pairs are fully correlated or not.) Therefore, although no information is really being transferred from Earth to Mars, Bob instantly assumes that Alice has taken the measurement along the orthogonal direction because his particles are fully correlated, and this fact he translates into a simple message “YES” or, say, 1.
If Alice takes the measurement along the Z direction, Bob becomes aware of that because when he measures his pair of particles in the GHZ state and gets information on their quantum properties, he sees that they are disentangled from each other. As he now knows that Alice took the measurement along the Z direction, he translates this state of disentanglement between his two particles as “NO” or 0.
Alice and Bob may have arrays of these three-particle GHZ systems, each with one particle on Earth, and two particles on Mars, and vice versa. They use these arrays for multiple exchanges of simple information, and, if needed, for determining with high certainty whether two other particles in each system are fully entangled or not. Moreover, there should be multiple measurements for each side to ensure that the jitter of the measurement tools cannot reverse the order of measurements.
Note that a similar approach could be applied to another type of tripartite entangled state—the so-called W-state. In it, three particles are also entangled as a system, particles are mutually entangled to some extent, but when one takes a measurement on one of its constituents, that does not destroy the entanglement of the other two particles—on the contrary, the entanglement persists and even becomes full.
In this case, also in regular, previously agreed time intervals, Alice either takes or skips her measurement. On Mars, Bob would always be taking measurements on his array of particles. If Alice had taken her measurement, he would have learned that his pairs of particles are fully entangled. He instantly knows that Alice had taken the measurement and therefore he assumes that the message is YES or 1. Conversely, if Bob’s results show that his pairs of particles are still partially entangled, it would mean that Alice skipped her measurement, thus he concludes that her message is NO or 0.
It seems that, effectively, complex messages can be instantaneously exchanged between Alice and Bob in either of these ways. They would not have to wait fifteen or twenty minutes to get the information from the other planet.
In a nutshell (for the usage of GHZ state of quantum entanglement):
1. There are three particles in the GHZ entangled state;
2. One of these particles is with Alice on Earth, the other two are with Bob on Mars;
In a nutshell (for the usage of W-state of quantum entanglement):
1. There are three particles in the W-state;
2. One of these particles is with Alice on Earth, the other two are with Bob on Mars;
DISCLAIMER: The laws of physics strictly forbid superluminal communication. This is only a mental exercise with the purpose of developing the skills of critical thinking and objective analysis. I invite readers, especially those with solid knowledge in the field of quantum physics, to closely scrutinize this thought experiment and let me know of any flaws in this reasoning in the comments section.
Have a nice day! :-)
Every human being needs to sleep, we all know that. But it’s interesting that almost every animal needs sleep too. No matter the species or age, whether it’s a lion, dolphin, insect or octopus, they all need a certain amount of sleep each day. This tells us that sleep is deeply ingrained into the DNA of all living beings that possess any kind of nervous system.
Need for Sleep—Physical Aspect
Let us first examine the physical function of sleep at the cellular level. Recent research conducted in 2013 by an American team of neuroscientists, shows that our brains shrink down during sleep, thus leaving some space inside the skull to be filled with the cerebral fluid which then takes out the toxic waste of the brain’s work. Therefore, sleep is essential for our physical and mental health, longevity and proper functioning in this world.
Our brains shrink down during sleep, thus leaving some space inside the skull to be filled with the cerebral fluid which then takes out the toxic waste of the brain’s work.
However, there may be a deeper, spiritual cause of sleep. And if there is, what that could be?
And the Holographic Principle teaches us, as inside—so outside, or as above—so below. In this case, we could suppose that the clue may be found at the lowest, physical level, because all levels are interconnected and symbolically mirror each other.
So, at the physical level, there is this process of cleaning up the brain from its toxic waste during sleep. Similarly, on the emotional and mental level, we clearly have a process of deep rejuvenation of our minds. Our toxic thoughts and emotions are being washed out and removed from our subconscious mind during sleep.
How does that happen? First of all, we need to understand the process of imprinting the painful experiences into our minds.
When we are in the state of conscious presence or Pure consciousness, unpleasant experiences are very rare, and if they do appear, by retaining or re-entering our state of Presence, the stressful event will inevitably fade away.
On the other hand, stressful experiences typically occur while we are in a semi-conscious state (i.e., state of being overwhelmed by thoughts or emotions, or being drunk, dizzy, or in other states of mind). Then these experiences stay at that level of consciousness or even get suppressed into lower states of mind, very close to unconsciousness. Normally, we can release them only when we get into exactly the state of mind where they are hidden.
Therefore, when we want to recall a suppressed event from the past, which is the source of a problem, we often need to purposefully dive into the unconscious or at least a sort of semi-conscious state. In this sense, hypnosis, autohypnosis, and similar techniques are very effective.
As we start falling asleep, we gradually delve into an unconscious state. In this way, while we are still in the semi-conscious state, many impressions, thoughts, and emotions related to everyday experiences are emerging. Usually, these are the mind contents that have some emotional charge. The subtle barrier between the conscious and subconscious mind weakens and it begins leaking various contents of the subconscious mind. The same may occur in the process of waking up, although usually much faster.
This process of releasing the painful and suppressed impressions happens in dreams as well, which are almost completely out of control of our conscious ego.
If the suppressed impression remains hidden in the layers of our subconscious mind, it must eventually be expressed somehow in our body or in the outside world. This may bring about similar or even worse troubles than those that had caused the suppressed experience. Or it may cause physical or mental illness. That’s why sleep is so important, as well as work on the reintegration of these experiences.
What happens with us when we are in a state of deep sleep? Our consciousness has been gone for a while. It reemerges several times during sleep when we are dreaming (REM phase), although that is a kind of semi-conscious state. But what happens in-between?
A similar unconscious state is found in a coma, but without the REM phase and within different biochemical body conditions.
In any case, the deep sleep state is needed typically for the vast majority of living creatures. In that period of the day, we are all absolutely dis-identified with our bodies. Our consciousness is indistinguishable from the wholeness of Existence. We are seeing the face of God. But, since that state is completely beyond mind, space, time, matter and energy, there are no memories of it when we wake up. However, in that period our mind is inactive and free of our conscious decisions and pressure for activity. It does exist as an energetic entity, and it’s free to heal and rejuvenate itself, to naturally discharge a lot of unnecessary mind contents, similarly to the above-mentioned process of taking out the toxic waste of the brain’s work.
Cycles and Recapitulation
Going daily through the cycle from deep sleep to waking state, all sentient beings relive all previous stages of their spiritual evolution, starting from the initial state of oneness with the primordial consciousness (deepest dream), through the state of low-level group consciousness (semi-conscious state before or after sleep), until transition into an individual self-aware consciousness.
This cycle of recapitulation of spiritual evolution takes place during the whole human life, in which one passes through the embryonic stage—primordial consciousness; early childhood— the semi-conscious condition of the mind; and adult individuals—the normal waking state.
Cycles are inevitable. Recapitulation also exists at the physical level, where the embryo undergoes the stage of development of its biological species—single-celled, then multicellular organism, the stage of fish, amphibians, etc.
We may assume that sleeping and dreaming are parts of recapitulation cycles that are vital to all living beings. All of us must repeatedly experience all the main stages of our previous evolution in order to continue with the next stages of development.
Sleeping and dreaming are parts of recapitulation cycles that are vital to all living beings.
Therefore, it seems that the lower states of consciousness that we are repeatedly experiencing in these cycles and oscillations (both on a daily and long-term basis), are the foundation of our conscious existence. Moreover, they are the springboard for further spiritual growth.
Tips to Improve Your Sleep Hygiene
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